Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing as well as dispensing drugs and medicines. It is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs.
The field of pharmacy can generally be divided into three primary disciplines:
- Pharmaceutics and Pharmacognosy :-Pharmaceutics is the discipline of pharmacy that deals with the process of turning a new chemical entity (NCE) into a medication to be used safely and effectively by patients. It is also called the science of dosage form design. Whereas Pharmacognosy is the study of medicines derived from natural sources.
- Pharmacy practice :- Areas of pharmacy practice include Disease-state management, Clinical interventions, Professional development, Pharmaceutical care, Extemporaneous pharmaceutical compounding, Health psychology, Patient care, Drug abuse prevention, Prevention of drug interactions, including drug-drug interactions or drug-food interactions, Prevention (or minimization) of adverse events, Incompatibility, Drug discovery and evaluation and Community Pharmacy.
- Pharmacy Practice Research- Pharmacy practice research is a specialty within the wider area of health services research. As such its aims are similar but the context is limited to settings where pharmacists are employed or medicines are prescribed, supplied or used. It examines how and why people access pharmacy services, how much care costs, and what happens to patients as a result of this care. It is research which seeks to understand and optimize the way professionals, patients and the public think about and access medicines and pharmacy services.
PHARMACY EDUCATION IN INDIA
India has unique distinction that the 1st pharmacy college in Asia was started in GOA, in the year 1842, by the Portuguese. In 1932, Prof. Mahadev Lal Schroff( Called as father of Pharmacy Education in India) started a pharmacy college/department at the Banaras Hindu University. Since then picture has changed drastically and in the last couple of years we have seen a tremendous rise in the number of pharmacy colleges considering the huge demand.
Now around 600 colleges are offering diploma whereas more than 400 colleges are offering degree in Pharmacy.
Regulation of Pharmacy Education
Formal pharmacy education began over prior to Independence. Soon after independence, the Pharmacy Act, 1948 was enacted to regulate the profession of pharmacy.
The pharmacy Diplomas (D.Pharm) are awarded by various Boards of Technical Education, Controlled by the State Governments. The details of curriculum and evaluation are given by the PCI(Pharmacy Council of India.)
The B.Pharm and M.Pharm education is under direct control of the different universities. The respective universities decide the details of the curriculum and evaluation. The degrees are awarded by the universities. The AICTE lays down various guidelines and curriculum outline to conduct the degrees.
(For More Information please visit http://www.pci.nic.in)
Eligibility & Course Requirement
Diploma in Pharmacy (D.Pharm) – Minimum Requirement for Admission: 10+2 with Science- 2 Year Full Time course + 500hrs Training
Possibilities after D.Pharm- A person who has completed D.Pharm can be employed as a registered Pharmacist in a community pharmacy or a hospital pharmacy. It is the minimum qualification to practice pharmacy; therefore, it is mandatory that all dispensing of prescription medicines has to be done under the supervision of a pharmacist only. He/She can also work as a medical representative & also work in the industry.
Bachelor of Pharmacy (B.Pharm) – Minimum Requirement for Admission: 10+2 PCM/PCB/PCMB + CET wherever applicable – 4 Year Full Time course.
Possibilities after B.Pharm: As per the present curriculums in India, B.Pharm degree mainly prepares the candidate to work in the pharmaceutical industry. The course structure of the degree includes practical training in the pharmaceutical industry environment. A pharmacist having B.Pharma is also eligible to practice pharmacy in community or in hospital.
Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm. D.) – Requirement for Admission: 10+2 PCM/PCB/PCMB/D.Pharm or B.Pharm(Lateral Entry in 4th Year), 6 Year Full Time course including 1 Year Hospital Internship. This course was announced in 2008. It includes five years of clinical and community based theory with ward rounds and one year internship in hospitals.
Master of Pharmacy (M. Pharm) – Requirement for Admission: B.Pharm on Merit, 2 Years full time course which includes 1 Year Research work.
Ph.D in Pharmacy– Minimum Requirement- M.Pharma, Full Time/Part Time Program Minimum 3 Years
AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION